What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.

 What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.

Ethnic conflict, a sort of conflict during which the objectives of a minimum of one party are defined in ethnic terms, and therefore the conflict, its antecedents, and possible solutions are perceived along ethnic lines. The conflict is typically not about ethnic differences themselves but over political, economic, social, cultural, or territorial matters.

Ethnic conflict is one among the main threats to international peace and security. Conflicts within the Balkans, Rwanda, Chechnya, Iraq, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Darfur, also as in Israel, the West Bank , and therefore the Gaza Strip , are among the best-known and deadliest examples from the late 20th and early 21st centuries. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.The destabilization of provinces, states, and, in some cases, even whole regions may be a common consequence of ethnic violence. Ethnic conflicts are often amid gross human rights violations, like genocide and crimes against humanity, and by economic decline, state failure, environmental problems, and refugee flows. Violent ethnic conflict results in tremendous human suffering.

Ethnic identity, ethnicity, and ethnos

The terms ethnic and ethnicity have their roots within the Greek word ethnos, which describes a community of common descent. In ethnic conflict research, the terms ethnos , communal group, ethnic community, people, and minority are mostly used interchangeably. Two elements provide the idea to spot ethnic groups: first, the accentuation of cultural traits and, second, the sense that those traits distinguish the group from the members of the society who don't share the differentiating characteristics. Anthony D. Smith, a scholar of ethnicity and nationalism studies, identified ethnic criteria that provide the origins of communal identity. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.Those include shared historical experiences and memories, myths of common descent, a standard culture and ethnicity, and a link with a historic territory or a homeland, which the group may or might not currently inhabit. Elements of common culture include language, religion, laws, customs, institutions, dress, music, crafts, architecture, and even food. Ethnic communities show signs of solidarity and self-awareness, which are often expressed by the name the group gives itself.

Ethnic identity is made by both tangible and intangible characteristics. Tangible characteristics, like shared culture or common visible physical traits, are important because they contribute to the group’s feeling of identity, solidarity, and uniqueness. As a result, the group considers perceived and real threats to its tangible characteristics as risks to its identity. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.If the group takes steps to confront the threats, its ethnicity becomes politicized, and therefore the group becomes a political actor by virtue of its shared identity. On the opposite side, ethnicity is simply the maximum amount supported intangible factors—namely, on what people believe, or are made to believe, to make a way of solidarity among members of a specific ethnos and to exclude those that aren't members.

Although communal identity provides the inspiration for the definition of ethnic groups, disagreement exists over how ethnic identity forms and the way it changes over time. a primary school of thought, referred to as the primordialist approach, explains ethnicity as a hard and fast characteristic of people and communities. consistent with primordialists, ethnicity is embedded in inherited biological attributes, an extended history of practicing cultural differences, or both. Ethnic identity is seen as unique in intensity and sturdiness and as an existential factor defining individual self-identification and communal distinctiveness. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.Mobilization of ethnic identity and ethnic nationalism may be a powerful tool to interact the group during a political struggle. Ethnic divisions and ethnic conflict are considered inherent to multiethnic societies and a standard phenomenon.

The primordialist specialise in fixed identities, however, fails to acknowledge variations in ethnos formation, starting from relatively short-term associations to long-standing, strong, and cohesive groups with biological and historical roots. To account for these differences, a second approach, mentioned as instrumentalist, was developed, which understands ethnicity as a tool employed by individuals and groups to unify, organize, and mobilize populations to realize larger goals. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.Those goals are mostly of a political nature and include, among others, demands for self-governance, autonomy, access to resources and power, respect for the group’s identity and culture, and minority rights. Instrumentalists hold that ethnicity has little or no or no independent ranking outside the political process and is in its character like other political affiliations like ideological beliefs or party membership. consistent with instrumentalists, ethnicity may be a results of personal choice and mostly independent from the situational context or the presence of cultural and biological traits. Ethnic conflict arises if ethnic groups compete for an equivalent goal—notably power, access to resources, or territory. The interests of a society’s elite class play a crucial role in mobilizing ethnic groups to interact in ethnic conflicts. Ethnic conflict is thus almost like other political interest conflicts.

Instrumentalism is criticized by those that argue that ethnicity, in contrast to political affiliations, can't be willfully selected by individuals and is instead rooted in and controlled by the society as an entire . Advocates of another school of thought, referred to as social constructivism, specialise in the social nature of ethnic identity. In their view, ethnicity is neither fixed nor entirely open. Ethnic identity is made by social interactions between individuals and groups and remains therefore beyond a person’s choice, but it's subject to vary if the social conditions change. Individuals and groups cannot avoid the very fact that ethnic differences exist, but they determine for themselves what to form of these differences. Ethnic conflict depends thus to an excellent extent on the opportunities provided for the group to succeed in their goals. Violent conflict is caused mainly by social and political systems that cause inequality and grievances and don't offer options for the peaceful expression of differences. Changes in social interactions, like increased tensions or violent conflict, influence the socially constructed nature of ethnicity. Social constructivists explain the tremendous atrocities committed during ethnic conflicts—such as genocide, mass rape, and ethnic cleansing—by the very fact that, by virtue of ethnicity, ultimately everyone becomes involved within the struggle, no matter their intent.

A fourth view, that of psychocultural interpretations, ascribes to ethnicity deep cultural and psychological roots, which make ethnic identity extremely persistent. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.The scholar Marc Howard Ross, drawing on psychocultural interpretation theory, defines ethnic identity as originating in “shared, deeply rooted worldviews” that shape group members’ relationships with others, their actions, and their motives. Ethnic identity can't be changed, only made more tolerant and open-minded. Ethnic conflict engages central elements of every group’s identity and invokes fears and suspicion about real and potential opponents. Ethnic conflict is thus not simply a political event but a drama that challenges the very existence of the group by contesting its identity. This explains why ethnic conflicts are very difficult to resolve.

In reality, some ethnic groups have identities with deep historical roots whereas others don't , and a few groups have static identities whereas others have dynamic identities. The concrete expression of ethnicity and its propensity to steer to violence and warfare depend upon the context. Ethnic identities are adaptable to and activated by unexpected threats and new opportunities. Ethnicity can't be politicized unless an underlying core of memories, experience, or meaning moves people to collective action. In light of this, Milton J. Esman, in his book Ethnic Politics (1994), noted that ethnic identity usually “can be located on a spectrum between primordial historical continuities and (instrumental) opportunistic adaptations.”

Several factors contribute to the salience and intensity of ethnic identities. Indisputably, the strongest factor is war and violence. First, the history of common efforts, stories of sacrifices for a standard goal, and memories of human suffering create strong connections among the members of affected ethnic groups. Similarly, if a gaggle experiences economic, political, and cultural discrimination, group cohesion tends to extend . Second, a group’s ethnic identity is stronger if mass literacy is achieved. Literacy allows elements of identity to be stored in writing, which suggests that historical and cultural narratives can reach a mass audience and stay an equivalent over time. albeit an ethnic identity lies dormant for a few time, it are often revived. Finally, the identities of nonimmigrant groups tend to be more pronounced than the identities of immigrant ethnic groups. While immigrants often assimilate, nonimmigrant minorities generally adhere to their traditions, especially if they're easily distinguished from the remainder of the society by tangible traits like physical markers.

Not all ethnic groups are politically active or engage in ethnic conflict. counting on the political structure of the state (democracy versus authoritarian regimes) and therefore the size and situation of the ethnic group (large versus small portion of the society, regionally concentrated versus dispersed), ethnic groups will have different claims and can use different means to voice their demands. The Minorities in danger Project at the University of Maryland began tracking ethnic groups in 1986, and it developed six types for categorizing the groups: ethnonationalists, indigenous peoples, ethnoclasses, communal contenders, religious sects, and national minorities.

Conflict describes a situation during which two or more actors pursue incompatible goals. it's not necessarily violent, but the utilization of tension, dispute, or unease is more common during a nonviolent context. A violent internal conflict is usually called a war or armed conflict when casualties and destruction are substantial, the conflict features a certain duration, the protagonists are organized, and military operations are wont to achieve political goals.

Ethnic conflict, therefore, may be a sort of conflict during which there's an ethnic dimension. The ambitions of a minimum of one party are defined in ethnic terms, and therefore the conflict, its antecedents, and possible solutions are perceived along ethnic lines. The conflict tends to not be about ethnic differences themselves but over political, economic, social, cultural, or territorial matters.

If the political goal of ethnic mobilization is self-determination, the movement is named nationalism. A nation during this context may be a politicized ethnos with the will for self-government; that self-government may take a spread of forms, starting from participation publicly affairs to local segmental autonomy to territorial claims, including independence. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.the utilization of the word nation is problematic. On the one side, nation can mean the state as an entire (the way the term is employed in international or United Nations). If nation refers to people during this context, it are often understood because the aggregate, permanent population of the state, supported citizenship. On the opposite side, the word nation is additionally widely wont to ask a politicized ethnos , during which case the link among people is predicated on ethnicity instead of citizenship.

Ethnic disputes are common in every multicultural society. Intergroup problems arise in periods of considerable political, economic, and social change and cause uncertainty, emerging opportunities for action, and particularistic interests. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.Grievances and polarizing leadership cause mobilization, starting from political action (conventional politics, strikes, demonstrations, and other nonviolent means) to violent acts like terrorism, armed uprisings, guerrilla activity, and civil wars.

Ethnic geography—the geographic distribution and territorial concentration of ethnic groups in pluralistic states—also contributes to the likelihood of violent ethnic conflict. Ethnic conflict is especially common in states with territorially concentrated ethnic groups located near a border or with ethnic kin in an adjacent state. Those groups show high levels of organization and increased group cohesion and are ready to use shared homelands as a territorial base for his or her political struggle.

 

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