MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22

MPC 001 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, LEARNING AND MEMORY Solved Assignment 2021-22

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MPC 001 Solved Assignment

2021-22

Course Code: MPC-001
Assignment Code: MPC-001/ASST/TMA/2021-22
Marks: 100

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.

SECTION – A

Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks

1. Define cognitive psychology and describe the domains of cognitive psychology.

Cognitive psychology is that the scientific investigation of human cognition, that is, all our mental abilities – perceiving, learning, remembering, thinking, reasoning, and understanding. The term “cognition” stems from the Latin word “ cognoscere” or “to know”. Fundamentally, psychology studies how people acquire and apply knowledge or information. it’s closely associated with the highly interdisciplinary science and influenced by AI , computing , philosophy, anthropology, linguistics, biology, physics, and neuroscience.

History

Cognitive psychology in its modern form incorporates an interesting set of latest technologies in psychology . Although published inquiries of human cognition are often traced back to Aristotle’s ‘’De Memoria’’ (Hothersall, 1984), the intellectual origins of psychology began with cognitive approaches to psychological problems at the top of the 1800s and early 1900s within the works of Wundt, Cattell, and James (Boring, 1950).

Cognitive psychology declined within the half of the 20th century with the increase of “behaviorism” –- the study of laws relating observable behavior to objective, observable stimulus conditions with none recourse to internal mental processes (Watson, 1913; Boring, 1950; Skinner, 1950). it had been this last requirement, fundamental to psychology , that was one among behaviorism’s undoings. for instance , lack of understanding of the interior mental processes led to no distinction between memory and performance and did not account for complex learning (Tinklepaugh, 1928; Chomsky, 1959). These issue led to the decline of behaviorism because the dominant branch of scientific psychology and to the “Cognitive Revolution”.

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 The Cognitive Revolution began within the mid-1950s when researchers in several fields began to develop theories of mind supported complex representations and computational procedures (Miller, 1956; Broadbent, 1958; Chomsky, 1959; Newell, Shaw, & Simon, 1958). MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 psychology became predominant within the 1960s (Tulving, 1962; Sperling, 1960). Its resurgence is probably best marked by the publication of Ulric Neisser’s book, ‘’Cognitive Psychology’’, in 1967. Since 1970, quite sixty universities in North America and Europe have established psychology programs.

Approaches

Very much like physics, experiments and simulations/modelling are the main research tools in psychology . Often, the predictions of the models are directly compared to human behaviour. With the convenience of access and wide use of brain imaging techniques, psychology has seen increasing influence of neuroscience over the past decade. There are currently three main approaches in psychology : experimental cognitive psychology, computational psychology , and neural psychology .
Experimental psychology treats psychology together of the natural sciences and applies experimental methods to research human cognition. Psychophysical responses, reaction time, and eye tracking are often measured in experimental psychology
MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Computational psychology develops formal mathematical and computational models of human cognition supported symbolic and subsymbolic representations, and dynamical systems. Neural psychology uses brain imaging (e.g., EEG, MEG, fMRI, PET, SPECT, Optical Imaging) and neurobiological methods (e.g., lesion patients) to know the neural basis of human cognition. The three approaches are often inter-linked and supply both independent and complementary insights in every sub-domain of psychology .

Sub-domains of psychology

Traditionally, psychology includes human perception, attention, learning, memory, concept formation, reasoning, judgment and decision-making, problem solving, and language processing. For some, social and cultural factors, emotion, consciousness, animal cognition, evolutionary approaches have also become a part of psychology .

2. Critically discuss Sternberg’s Information processing approach.

Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor (the printer) is changing the form of presentation of that text file (from bytes to glyphs).The computers up to this period function on the basis of programmes saved in the memory, they have no intelligence of their own.

Sternberg's theory of intelligence is made up of three different components: creative, analytical, and practical abilities (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). Creativeness is the ability to have new original ideas, and being analytical can help a person decide whether the idea is a good one or not. "Practical abilities are used to implement the ideas and persuade others of their value" (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012 p. 21). MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 In the middle of Sternberg's theory is cognition and with that is information processing. In Sternberg's theory, he says that information processing is made up of three different parts, metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). These processes move from higher-order executive functions to lower-order functions. Metacomponents are used for planning and evaluating problems, while performance components follow the orders of the metacomponents, and the knowledge-acquisition component learns how to solve the problems (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). This theory in action can be explained by working on an art project. First is a decision about what to draw, then a plan and a sketch. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 During this process there is simultaneous monitoring of the process, and whether it is producing the desired accomplishment. All these steps fall under the metacomponent processing, and the performance component is the art. The knowledge-acquisition portion is the learning or improving drawing skills.

Information processing theories of intelligence offer a potentially rich yet generally unexplored theoretical forum for conceptualizing and investigating learning disabilities. The purpose of this article is to advance our understanding of the nature of specific learning disabilities by using Sternberg's (1985) triarchic theory of human intelligence as a framework for expanding the componential-deficit approach. Specifically, deficient cognitive strategies and inadequate knowledge in certain domains may result from learning disabled individuals' inability to (a) selectively encode, compare, and combine information, or (b) automatize information processing. In addition, this article emphasizes the importance of the experiential, contextual, and motivational history of the learning disabled individual in understanding his or her componential deficits.

Robert Sternberg is an American psychologist and professor who is best known for his theory on intelligence and creativity. Learn about Sternberg's views on intelligence, information processing, the basic mental processes, and more.

In cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011). Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has actually chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received), and transformation (saved effort of questioning - equivocation minus dissipation) (Denning and Bell, 2012).

Within the field of cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking in relation to how they process the same kind of information as computers (Shannon & Weaver, 1963). It arose in the 1940s and 1950s, after World War II (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The essence of the approach is to see cognition as being in essence computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware. The information processing approach in psychology is closely allied to the Computational theory of mind in philosophy; it is also related, though not identical, to cognitivism in psychology and functionalism in philosophy (Horst, 2011).

Information processing can be sequential or parallel, which can both be either centralized or decentralized (distributed). The parallel distributed processing in mid-1980s became popular under the name connectionism. In early 1950s Friedrich Hayek was ahead of his time when he posited the idea of spontaneous order in the brain arising out of decentralized networks of simple units (neurons). IGNOU MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 However, Hayek is rarely cited in the literature of connectionism. The connectionist network is made up different nodes, and it works by a "priming effect," and this happens when a "prime node activates a connected node" (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). But "unlike in semantic networks, it is not a single node that has a specific meaning, but rather the knowledge is represented in a combination of differently activated nodes"(Goldstein, as cited in Sternberg, 2012).

Intelligence is one of the most complex, talked about concepts within the field of psychology. In the past century, several theories about what constitutes intelligence have been created. Robert Sternberg, an American psychologist, created one of the most wellknown theories of intelligence. IGNOU MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Unlike most theories of intelligence, Sternberg's theory calls for the integration of intelligence and creativity.

According to Robert Sternberg's theory, there are three basic mental processes that underlie all intelligent behavior. The three basic mental processes are:

Although what is viewed as intelligent in one culture might not be viewed as intelligent in another, the basic mental processes are the same across different cultures.

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Metacomponents are the executive processes that we use to solve problems, plan what to do, make decisions, and evaluate outcomes. Performance components carry out the directions of the metacomponents. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 It is performance components that allow us to store information in short-term memory, compare two concepts, compare solutions to the task, etc. Knowledge-acquisition components are what we use to learn and store new information. In other words, metacomponents tell us what to do, performance components actually do it, and knowledge-acquisition components make sure we learn things along the way.

For example, you may plan to read a book - that involves metacomponents. When you grab a book off the shelf and actually read it, that involves performance components. If you learn new vocabulary words while reading, that involves knowledge-acquisition components.

3. Explain the concept of IQ. Describe the history of measurement of intelligence.

IQ, short for intelligence quotient, is a measure of a person’s reasoning ability. In short, it is supposed to gauge how well someone can use information and logic to answer questions or make predictions. IQ tests begin to assess this by measuring short- and longterm memory. They also measure how well people can solve puzzles and recall information they’ve heard — and how quickly.

Every student can learn, no matter how intelligent. But some students struggle in school because of a weakness in one specific area of intelligence. These students often benefit from special education programs. There, they get extra help in the areas where they’re struggling. IQ tests can help teachers figure out which students would benefit from such extra help.

IQ tests also can help identify students who would do well in fast-paced “gifted education” programs. Many colleges and universities also use exams similar to IQ tests to select students. And the U.S. government — including its military — uses IQ tests when choosing who to hire. These tests help predict which people would make good leaders, or be better at certain specific skills.

It’s tempting to read a lot into someone’s IQ score. Most non-experts think intelligence is the reason successful people do so well. Psychologists who study intelligence find this is only partly true. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 IQ tests can predict how well people will do in particular situations, such as thinking abstractly in science, engineering or art. Or leading teams of people. But there’s more to the story. Extraordinary achievement depends on many things. And those extra categories include ambition, persistence, opportunity, the ability to think clearly — even luck.

According to Huitt (2003), there are a few basic principles that most cognitive psychologists agree with:

The mental system has limited capacities, i.e. bottlenecks in the flow and processing of information, occur at very specific points

A control mechanism is required to oversee the encoding, transformation, processing, storage, retrieval and utilization of information. This control mechanism requires itself processing power and that varies in function of the difficulty of the task.

There is a two-way flow of information. Sensory input is combined with information stored in memory in order to construct meaning.

The human organism has been genetically prepared to process and organize information in specific ways.

The first modern intelligence test in IQ history was developed in 1904, by Alfred Binet (1857-1911) and Theodore Simon (1873-1961). MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The French Ministry of Education asked these researchers to develop a test that would allow for distinguishing mentally retarded children from normally intelligent, but lazy children. The result was the Simon-Binet IQ test. This IQ test consists of several components such as logical reasoning, finding rhyming words and naming objects.

The score for the IQ test in combination with a child's age, provides information on the intellectual development of the child: is the child ahead of or lagging other children? The IQ was calculated as (mental age/chronological age) X 100. The test came to be a huge success, both in Europe and America.

The key assumption behind evolutionary epistemology is that animals are active learners or ‘knowers’. In the present study, I updated the concept of natural learning, developed by Henry Plotkin and John Odling-Smee, by expanding it from the animal-only territory to the biosphere-as-a-whole territory. In the new interpretation of natural learning the concept of biological information, guided by Peter Corning’s concept of “control information”, becomes the ‘glue’ holding the organism–environment interactions together. The control information guides biological systems, from bacteria to ecosystems, in the process of natural learning executed by the universal algorithm. This algorithm, summarized by the acronym IGPT (information-gain-process-translate) incorporates natural cognitive methods including sensing/perception, memory, communication, and decision-making. Finally, the biosphere becomes the distributed network of communicative interactions between biological systems termed the interactome. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The concept of interactome is based on Gregory Bateson’s natural epistemology known as the “ecology of mind”. Mimicking Bateson’s approach, the interactome may also be designated “physiology of mind”—the principle behind regulating the biosphere homeostasis.

The universal capacity of organisms, from bacteria to animals, to actively sense their local environments and adjust to them intelligently, reflects the universal capacity to learn (Plotkin 1982; Bradie 1986; Gontier 2006; Watson et al. 2015; Watson and Szathm√°ry 2016; Bradie and Harms 2017). In the evolutionary sense, all organisms are active learners or ‘knowers’. The processes behind natural learning are at the heart of evolutionary epistemology. According to the branch of evolutionary epistemology known as EEM (evolutionary epistemology mechanisms): (1) organisms are knowledge systems, (2) evolution is the process of knowledge acquisition and (3) there are features shared by all forms of the evolutionary knowledge acquisition (Plotkin 1982).

Learning enables organisms to intelligently adjust to local environments and calls for further learning and further adjustments—organisms are engaged in an endless process of natural epistemology or biological intelligence (Slijepcevic 2018). Furthermore, the process of learning is not one sided. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 As organisms learn about their local environments and adjust to them, local environments become their learning partners (Lewontin 1978; Okasha 2005). Local environments, represented by diverse groups of organisms, learn about adjusting actions of their organismal partners and intelligently adjust to their partners’ adjustments. This is the biosphere-wide cybernetic process that includes all species and all organisms (Bateson 1979). In this process, organisms of the same species communicate with each other through natural languages (Ben-Jacob 1998; Ben-Jacob et al. 2004) and different forms of semiosis (i.e. habits, codes), as they are at work in ecological systems and explored by contemporary biosemiotics (Kull et al. 2008). On the other hand, organisms from different species communicate through the process of crosskingdom communication based on biosemiotics (McFall-Ngai et al. 2013; Jarosz et al. 2014).

Given that the nature of communicative interactions is cybernetic or informational, biological information becomes an essential ingredient in the process of natural learning. The role of information in natural learning featured prominently in writings of EEM proponents (e.g. Plotkin 1982; Plotkin and Odling-Smee 1982). However, very little can be found in the EEM literature about the actual concept of biological information and how this concept integrates into the process of natural learning.

The aim of the present paper is to integrate the original EEM’s understanding of natural learning by Plotkin (1982) and Plotkin and Odling-Smee (1982) with cybernetic, information theory and systems theory views, using bacteria as a model system. I start by presenting the EEM’s take on the concept of information and the role of information in natural learning (Sect. 2). I then outline the concept of biological information that combines information theory and its more recent derivatives appropriate for biological systems, in particular, “control information” of Corning (2007) (Sect. 3) and information processing by bacteria (Ben-Jacob 1998, 2009; Ben-Jacob et al. 2004) (Sect. 4). In the final part of the paper (Sect. 5), I present a synthetic outlook of information processing and natural learning in biological systems.

This chapter discusses measuring of intelligence by Francis Galton, J. McK. Cattell, and Alfred Binet. Charles Spearman abhorred the program that would separate the mind into a loose confederation of independent faculties of learning, memory and attention. Although most intelligence researchers today probably accept that the general factor is to stay, they remain sharply divided on its explanation. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 These disagreements go well beyond a rejection of Spearman's specific suggestions that g is either mental energy or the eduction of relations and correlates. Spearman saw that he needed to provide a psychological or (better still) a neurobiological explanation of g. The two favorite paradigms for this program of research were inspection time (IT) and choice reaction time (RT). Aided by the new technologies of brain imaging, research on intelligence, working memory, and other so-called executive functions has begun to point to some of the brain structures common to them all.

SECTION – B

Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks

4. Describe the principles of information processing.

Information Processing is how individuals perceive, analyze, manipulate, use, and remember information. Unlike Piaget’s theory, this approach proposes that cognitive development is ongoing and gradual, not organized into distinct stages. The areas of basic cognitive changes generally occur in five areas:

Attention. Improvements are seen in selective attention(the process by which one focuses on one stimulus while tuning out another), as well as divided attention (the ability to pay attention to two or more stimuli at the same time).

Memory. Improvements are seen in working memory and long-term memory.

Processing Speed. With maturation, children think more quickly. Processing speed improves sharply between age five and middle adolescence, levels off around age 15, and does not appear to change between late adolescence and adulthood.

Organization of Thinking. As children mature, they are more planful, they approach problems with strategy, and are flexible in using different strategies in different situations.

Metacognition. Older children can think about thinking itself. This often involves monitoring    one’s own    cognitive        activity           during             the thinking process. Metacognitionprovides the ability to plan ahead, see the future consequences of an action, and provide alternative explanations of events.

Changes in attention have been described by many as the key to changes in human memory (Nelson & Fivush, 2004; Posner & Rothbart, 2007). However, attention is not a unified function; it is comprised of sub-processes. Our ability to focus on a single task or stimulus while ignoring distracting information, called selective attention. There is a sharp improvement in selective attention from age six into adolescence (Vakil, Blachstein, Sheinman, & Greenstein, 2009). Sustained attention is the ability to stay on task for long periods. The ability to switch our focus between tasks or external stimuli is called divided attention or multitasking, which also improves into adolescence (Carlson, Zelazo, & Faja, 2013).

According to Huitt (2003), there are a few basic principles that most cognitive psychologists agree with:

The mental system has limited capacities, i.e. bottlenecks in the flow and processing of information, occur at very specific points

A control mechanism is required to oversee the encoding, transformation, processing, storage, retrieval and utilization of information. This control mechanism requires itself processing power and that varies in function of the difficulty of the task.

There is a two-way flow of information. Sensory input is combined with information stored in memory in order to construct meaning.

The human organism has been genetically prepared to process and organize information in specific ways.

5. Explain the cellular bases of learning and memory.

It is believed that neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's and Parkinson’s, result from cell death; however, it is unknown how or why cell death occurs. One potential cause are a family of proteins called molecular motors, that fail to function in the transportation of replacement components and nutrients. Dr. George Langford, Distinguished Professor of Neuroscience and Professor of Biology at Syracuse University, is interested in the cellular basis of learning and memory. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 By studying the way in which information is stored in the brain -- particularly the role of molecular motors -- Dr. Langford is working to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for neurodegeneration. Through the understanding of such mechanisms, Dr. Langford and his team hope to lead to the discovery of new drug targets that could be useful in preventing neurodegenerative disease as well as candidiasis. Thus, his work is inspired by the hope that someday it may be possible to unravel the dynamic changes of the synapse in order to treat patients with memory loss or other symptoms associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

Dr. Langford’s expertise in the proteins of the cytoskeleton, or the transportation system in the nerve cells, has allowed him to observe dynamic changes in living cells in a novel and exciting way. His cutting-edge super resolution imaging techniques allow him to visualize molecular motors and the cargo they carry, the changing shapes of the cell, and the movements of the cell. With close collaborations with colleagues in Germany, at the Marine Biological Laboratory, and at the University of California, San Francisco, Dr. Langford and his team are making advances in our current understanding of how neurodegenerative diseases work at a molecular level. In addition to the quality of his research, Dr. Langford also has dedicated his professional career to promoting diversity in the sciences. He actively supports and mentors underrepresented minority students in his laboratory and works on programs that increase opportunity for aspiring researchers, especially for those underrepresented in the biomedical sciences.

Neurodegenerative Disease: Dr. Langford’s efforts to understand how to prevent the loss of function of molecular motors is a step towards finding cures for neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Primarily, he studies the cytoskeleton and mechanisms of transport of organelles and vesicles in nerve cells. In fact, his collaborators and Dr. Langford discovered the actin-dependent component of vesicle transport in nerve cells and were the first to propose the dual filament model of transport. His basic research has thus played a role in paradigm shifting discoveries for cell biology and neuroscience.  

6. Discuss Spearman’s Two-factor theory of intelligence.

Charles Spearman developed his two-factor theory of intelligence using factor analysis. His research not only led him to develop the concept of the g factor of general intelligence, but also the s factor of specific intellectual abilities L. L. Thurstone, Howard Gardner, and Robert Sternberg also researched the structure of intelligence, and in analyzing their data, concluded that a single underlying factor was influencing the general intelligence of individuals. However, Spearman was criticized in 1916 by Godfrey Thomson, who claimed that the evidence was not as crucial as it seemed. Modern research is still expanding this theory by investigating Spearman's law of diminishing returns, and adding connected concepts to the research. 

In 1904, Charles Spearman had developed a statistical procedure called factor analysis. In factor analysis, related variables are tested for correlation to each other, then the correlation of the related items are evaluated to find clusters or groups of the variables. Spearman tested how well people performed on various tasks relating to intelligence. Such tasks include: MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 distinguishing pitch, perceiving weight and colors, directions, and mathematics. When analyzing the data he collected, Spearman noted that those that did well in one area also scored higher in other areas. With this data, Spearman concluded that there must be one central factor that influences our cognitive abilities. Spearman termed this general intelligence. 

The early 1900s saw Charles Spearman using a mathematical approach to the question of measuring human intelligence. Using statistical factor analysis Spearman identified g, a single underlying intelligence factor he believed accounted for the variety of observable abilities.

Spearman noticed that children’s grades across all school subjects tended to be highly correlated. If a child did well in one subject, they generally also did well in another subject, and vice versa. What did this say about the nature of intelligence?

He devised factor analysis to measure the relationships between seemingly varied cognitive abilities and account for the correlations he saw between scores on different tests.

The result was Spearman’s two-factor theory which attempted to show that all cognitive performance can be explained by two variables: one general ability (g) and the many specific abilities (s) it gave rise to. Later, however, further analysis showed that g alone was enough to explain the correlations between different tests. When people talk about IQ or intelligence, it’s usually this general mental ability that they are referring to.

Today, almost all IQ tests are factor models inspired by Spearman’s work on g. As an example, consider the Stanford-Binet test, which measures different areas of performance that contribute to general intelligence, like working memory and visualspatial reasoning.  

7. Define creativity. Discuss the measurement of creativity.

Creativity is the act of turning new and imaginative ideas into reality. Creativity is characterised by the ability to perceive the world in new ways, to find hidden patterns, to make connections between seemingly unrelated phenomena, and to generate solutions. Creativity involves two processes: thinking, then producing.

Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scientific theory, a musical composition, or a joke) or a physical object (such as an invention, a printed literary work, or a painting).

Scholarly interest in creativity is found in a number of disciplines, primarily psychology, business studies, and cognitive science, but also education, the humanities, technology, engineering, philosophy (particularly philosophy of science), theology, sociology, linguistics, the arts, economics, and mathematics, covering the relations between creativity and general intelligence, personality type, mental and neural processes, mental health, or artificial intelligence; the potential for fostering creativity through education and training; the fostering of creativity for national economic benefit, and the application of creative resources to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning.

Within the student population, there are many highly creative individuals. I am not only talking about those studying disciplines traditionally considered creative (such as arts and humanities) but also  about students who have a variety of interests divergent from the degree that they study, such as those studying maths with a keen interest in playing music and debating. At university, there is certainly an abundance of choice in terms of creative outlets available such as creative writing, music, sports, arts and many more.

I find it very inspiring when people create and are passionate about their hobbies; finding out why people enjoy different creative outlets and what they do for entertainment in their spare time is one of the most fascinating aspects of human interaction for me. But why are some people creative, successful in harnessing their creativity and extremely motivated to be creative whereas others are not creative at all? Also, why can certain people excel in various creative endeavours while others only in one field? How can creativity be accurately defined and measured? Answers to these and many more questions are available from modern psychology.

Three main ways of measuring creativity have been proposed: the creativity quotient (CQ), psychometrics, and the social-personality approach. Measuring creativity by a quotient similar to an IQ was mostly unsuccessful because creativity is a highly abstract concept, there can be no right or wrong answers to a set of questions about creativity.

However, researchers have managed to test creativity by tests which employ imagination and open-mindedness to various options. Such tests, known as ‘divergence tests’ consider the uniqueness of a response and how people understand different concepts, instead of asking for a single right answer.

8. Explain the basic concepts of multilingualism.

Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by            a          group of        speakers.       It         is         believed             that     multilingual   speakers outnumber monolingual speakers        in             the world's    population. More     than    half     of all Europeans claim to speak at least one language other than their mother tongue; but many read and write in one language. Always useful to traders, multilingualism is advantageous for people wanting to participate in globalization and cultural openness. Owing to the ease of access to information facilitated by the Internet, individuals' exposure to multiple languages is becoming increasingly possible. People who speak several languages are also called polyglots. 

Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, the so-called first language (L1). The first language (sometimes also referred to           as        the      mother           tongue)          is             usually            acquired        without          formal            education, by mechanisms about which scholars disagree. Children acquiring two languages natively from these early years are called simultaneous bilinguals. It is common for young simultaneous bilinguals to be more proficient in one language than the other. 

People who speak more than one language have been reported to be more adept at language learning compared to monolinguals. 

Multilingualism in computing can be considered part of a continuum between internationalization and localization. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Due to the status of English in computing, software development nearly always uses it (but not in the case of non-English-based programming languages). Some commercial software is initially available in an English version, and multilingual versions, if any, may be produced as alternative options based on the English original 

Multilingualism is the ability of an individual speaker or a community of speakers to communicate effectively in three or more languages. Contrast with monolingualism, the ability to use only one language.

A person who can speak multiple languages is known as a polyglot or a multilingual.

The original language a person grows up speaking is known as their first language or mother tongue. Someone who is raised speaking two first languages or mother tongues is called a simultaneous bilingual. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 If they learn a second language later, they are called a sequential bilingual.

After the VoxPop fragments and the discussion about multilingualism, we would like to share an academic view on multilingualism with you. The basis of this step is the first chapter from The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, written by John Edwards (2015). A few new terms will be introduced in this text. For your convenience, a glossary can be found at the bottom.

It is not easy to define multilingualism or bilingualism, as there is a lot of variation possible in the degree of capturing a language. Some views acknowledge bilingualism only where two well-developed and equal fluencies were found. Others remain vague in matters of degree of fluency. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 And still others suggested that one is multilingual as soon as one is able to produce complete and meaningful utterances in a second language. Individuals whose bilingual capacities are good have been described as balanced bilinguals. However, most bilinguals master one language better than the other.

A useful distinction of different types of multilingualism can be made between receptive (or passive) and productive (or active) skills, the difference being between understanding a language (spoken or written) and being able to produce it (writing or speaking).

Another aspect that should be reckoned with is additive or subtractive tendencies. Additive bilingualism usually occurs when both languages continue to be useful and valued. The subtractive variety typically reflects a setting in which one language is more dominant and the other less used.

SECTION – C

Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks

9. Nature vs. Nurture

The nature vs. nurture debate is the scientific, cultural, and philosophical debate about whether human culture, behavior, and personality are caused primarily by nature or nurture.

The nature vs. nurture debate is an ongoing one. The modern debate often centers around the effect genes have on human disposition as opposed to the influences that early environment and development might have. As culture changes, so have popular understandings of this debate. In the 1960s, for example, psychologists—and pop culture in general—were heavily influenced by the theories of behaviorism. This theory led to the widespread belief that human personality is primarily influenced by experience and training. It was during this time that researcher John Money attempted to demonstrate that gender was a product of early conditioning by raising a boy, whose circumcision was botched, as a girl. His experiment seemed successful in the beginning but ultimately was a failure.

10.Neuroscience and cognitive psychology

Neuroscience, also known as Neural Science, is the study of how the nervous system develops, its structure, and what it does. Neuroscientists focus on the brain and its impact on behavior and cognitive functions. ... Neuroscience is often referred to in the plural, as neurosciences.

Cognitive psychology is the science of how we think. It's concerned with our inner mental processes such as attention, perception, memory, action planning, and language. Each of these components are pivotal in forming who we are and how we behave.

11.Miller’s magic number

Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short-term memory.  This idea was put forward by Miller (1956) and he called it the magic number 7. He though that short term memory could hold 7 (plus or minus 2 items) because it only had a certain number of “slots” in which items could be stored.

However, Miller didn’t specify the amount of information that can be held in each slot. Indeed, if we can “chunk” information together we can store a lot more information in our short term memory.  

12.Encoding, Storage and Retrieval

“Memory” is a single term that reflects a number of different abilities: holding information briefly while working with it (working memory), remembering episodes of one’s life (episodic memory), and our general knowledge of facts of the world (semantic memory), among other types. Remembering episodes involves three processes: encoding information (learning it, by perceiving it and relating it to past knowledge), storing it (maintaining it over time), and then retrieving it (accessing the information when needed). Failures can occur at any stage, leading to forgetting or to having false memories.

13.Knowledge base in PASS theory

Knowledge base of the PASS model represents all information obtained from the cultural and social background and throws light on various parts of behaviour. Simultaneous Processing is essential for organization of information into groups or a coherent whole.

The parieto-occipital-temporal brain regions provide a critical ability to see patterns as interrelated elements. Planning processes provide for the programming, regulation and verification of behaviour and are responsible for behaviors, such as asking questions, problem solving, and the capacity for self-monitoring.  

14.Spatial intelligence

Spatial intelligence, or visuo-spatial ability, has been defined "the ability to generate, retain, retrieve, and transform well-structured visual images" (Lohman 1996).

It's what we do when we visualize shapes in our "mind's eye."

It's the mental feat that architects and engineers perform when they design buildings. The capacity that permits a chemist to contemplate the three-dimensional structure of a molecule, or a surgeon to navigate the human body.

15.Algorithms

Algorithms are always unambiguous and are used as specifications for performing calculations, data processing, automated reasoning, and other tasks. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 In contrast, a heuristic is a technique used in problem solving that uses practical methods and/or various estimates in order to produce solutions that may not be optimal but are sufficient given the circumstances.

16.Problem space

Problem Space refers to the entire range of components that exist in the process of finding a solution to a problem. This range starts with “defining the problem,” then proceeds to the intermediate stage of “identifying and testing possible solutions” and ends with the final stage of “choosing and implementing a solution”. Plus, it includes all of the smaller steps that exist between these identified stages.

17.Functional fixedness

Functional fixedness is a type of cognitive bias that involves a tendency to see objects as only working in a particular way.1 For example, you might view a thumbtack as something that can only be used to hold paper to a corkboard. But what other uses might the item have?

In many cases, functional fixedness can prevent people from seeing the full range of uses for an object. It can also impair our ability to think of novel solutions to problems.

18.Backward search

In a problem-solving strategy in which the solver works backward from the end goal of the problem to the beginning. An example would be finding the path through a maze by working from the end of the maze to the beginning. See also working backward.

Backward reference searching, also known as chain searching, involves identifying and examining the references or works cited in an article. It is done for the following reasons: Learn about the development of knowledge on a topic. Study the origins and development of a theory, construct, or model of interest.

IGNOU MPC 001  Solved Assignment 2021-22: FREE IGNOU Assignment You can Get All students of university who needs to submit assignments should download old assignments of the respective course of 2021 available above and submit at the concerned study center. The last dates will be 30th April and 30th October of every year until their registration is valid. New assignments will not be available any more for students as course was revised.

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Where can I find Ignou solved assignment?

If you didn't get an Assignment Question yet then you can download it from the IGNOU Assignments section page. Just collect questions and start writing your assignment with the available solutions. IGNOU is very strict about checking of assignments submitted by students to IGNOU Study Centre.

How can we submit Ignou assignment?

Now students have to submit their assignments online to Madhyam before the scheduled date. You can submit your annual assignment through the online link. Through the online submission links issued by the university, you can submit your assignment from home.

How can I submit Ignou assignment online 2021?

The email must carry the following details of the sender:

  • 1.     Name of the learner:
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The first page must include the following information.

  • 1.     Name.
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Date of submission.

MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 You also directly download IGNOU Assignment Question Paper from – Follow the advice and Guidelines by IGNOU University , MPC 001  Solved Assignment 2021-22 For checking Guidelines you can see your question paper clearly, after seeing the question paper candidate still have any query related with IGNOU Solved Assignment , they can ask to their teacher if Students want any information they also can contact us. We will provide all IGNOU Help – 8130208920 (From 10:00AM to 7:00PM)

IGNOU Assignment Status 2021-22

MPC 001 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, LEARNING AND MEMORY Solved Assignment 2021-22: Those students who had successfully submitted their Assignments to their allocated study centres can now check their Assignment Status. Alongside assignment status, they will also checkout their assignment marks & result. All this is often available in a web mode. After submitting the assignment, you'll check you IGNOU Assignment Status only after 3-4 weeks. it'd take 40 days to declare.

Those students who had successfully submitted their Assignments to their allocated study centres can now check their Assignment Status. Along with assignment status, they can also checkout their assignment marks & result. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 All this is available in an online mode. After submitting the assignment, you can check you IGNOU Assignment Status only after 3-4 weeks. It might take 40 days to declare.

MPC 001  Solved Assignment 2021-22 Here the students can check their IGNOU Assignment Status, marks, result or both the sessions i.e; June & December.

Once the TEE assignments have been submitted to the Centres, it is send to the evaluation department. After which the evaluation of IGNOU Assignment Solutions takes place.

Here the scholars can check their IGNOU Assignment Status 2020, marks, result or both the sessions i.e; June & December.

MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Once the TEE assignments are submitted to the Centres, it's send to the evaluation department. After which the evaluation of IGNOU Assignment Solutions takes place.

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