MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22

 

MPC 004 ADVANCED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Solved Assignment 2021-22

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MPC 004 Solved Assignment
2021-22

Course Code: MPC 004

Assignment Code: MPC 004/ASST/TMA/2021-22

Marks: 100

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.

1. Explain the nature, concept and scope of social psychology. Describe the emergence of modern social psychology. 

The last century witnessed the creation of new sciences and specialised branches for specific needs together with the technological developments that have changed the scenario of education and knowledge. New social realities generated new problems. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Social psychology came into existence at the time when the world was undergoing a great upheaval. A significant number of facts in the fields of linguistics, anthropology, ethnography and archaeology needed interpretation for various facts. This need manifested itself in the development of two sciences regarded as the parents of social psychology: psychology and sociology.

Societies manifest themselves through the activities of people, through communication and interaction and in turn shape the behaviour of individuals. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The study of social psychology enable us to understand the dynamics of human behaviour in social situations and what effects do these situations exert on individuals and in what ways are these situations get changed by the behaviour of the individuals. Social psychology intrudes social life by providing practical recommendations in various areas. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The practical needs of the discipline have been increased by the increased demand for efficient management in the areas of industry, education, health, mass communication system, struggle against anti-social behaviour, public services and sports etc. In this unit we will discuss the concept and definition of social psychology, its background and developments and its relation to other social sciences. Floyd Allport (1924) has defined social psychology as “the scientific study of the experience and behaviour of individuals in relation to other individuals, groups and culture”. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 A similar definition by Gordon W. Allport (1968) states that social psychology is a discipline “that attempts to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of an individual are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others.”

Social psychology attempts to understand the relationship between minds, groups, and behaviors in three general ways:

1)    It tries to see how the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of other(s). MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 This includes social perception, social interaction, and the many kinds of social influence (like trust, power, and persuasion). It deals with questions like: How do small group dynamics impact cognition and emotional states?

How do social groups control or contribute to behaviour, emotion, or attitudes of the individual members?

How does the group impact the individual?

How does the individual operate within the social group?

2)    Second, it tries to understand the influence that individual perceptions and behaviours have upon the behaviour of groups. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 This includes looking at things like group productivity in the workplace and group decision making. It looks at questions like:

What are the reasons behind conformity, diversity, and deviance?

3)    Third, and finally, social psychology tries to understand groups themselves as behavioural entities, and the relationships and influences that one group has upon another group. It asks questions like:

What makes some groups hostile to one another, and others neutral or civil?

Do groups behave in a different way than an individual outside the group?

In European textbooks there is also fourth level called the “ideological” level. It studies the societal forces that influence the human psyche.

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The science of social psychology began when scientists first started to systematically and formally measure the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of human beings (Kruglanski & Stroebe, 2011). MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The earliest social psychology experiments on group behavior were conducted before 1900 (Triplett, 1898), and the first social psychology textbooks were published in 1908 (McDougall, 1908/2003; Ross, 1908/1974). During the 1940s and 1950s, the social psychologists Kurt Lewin and Leon Festinger refined the experimental approach to studying behavior, creating social psychology as a rigorous scientific discipline.  Lewin is sometimes known as “the father of social psychology” because he initially developed mMPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22any of the important ideas of the discipline, including a focus on the dynamic interactions among people. In 1954, Festinger edited an influential book called Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences, in which he and other social psychologists stressed the need to measure variables and to use laboratory experiments to systematically test research hypotheses about social behavior. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 He also noted that it might be necessary in these experiments to deceive the participants about the true nature of the research.

Social psychology was energized by researchers who attempted to understand how the German dictator Adolf Hitler could have produced such extreme obedience and horrendous behaviors in his followers during the World War II. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The studies on conformity conducted by Muzafir Sherif (1936) and Solomon Asch (1952), as well as those on obedience by Stanley Milgram (1974), showed the importance of conformity pressures in social groups and how people in authority could create obedience, even to the extent of leading people to cause severe harm to others. Philip Zimbardo, in his well-known “prison study” (Haney, Banks, & Zimbardo, 1973), found that the interactions of male college students who were recruited to play the roles of guards and prisoners in a simulated prison became so violent that the study had to be terminated early.

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Social psychology quickly expanded to study other topics. John Darley and Bibb LatanĂ© (1968) developed a model that helped explain when people do and do not help others in need, and Leonard Berkowitz (1974) pioneered the study of human aggression. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Meanwhile, other social psychologists, including Irving Janis (1972), focused on group behavior, studying why intelligent people sometimes made decisions that led to disastrous results when they worked together. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Still other social psychologists, including Gordon Allport and Muzafir Sherif, focused on intergroup relations, with the goal of understanding and potentially reducing the occurrence of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Social psychologists gave their opinions in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education U.S. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Supreme Court case that helped end racial segregation in American public schools, and social psychologists still frequently serve as expert witnesses on these and other topics (Fiske, Bersoff, Borgida, Deaux, & Heilman, 1991). In recent years insights from social psychology have even been used to design anti-violence programs in societies that have experienced genocide (Staub, Pearlman, & Bilali, 2010).

The latter part of the 20th century saw an expansion of social psychology into the field of attitudes, with a particular emphasis on cognitive processes. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 During this time, social psychologists developed the first formal models of persuasion, with the goal of understanding how advertisers and other people could present their messages to make them most effective (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993; Hovland, Janis, & Kelley, 1963). These approaches to attitudes focused on the cognitive processes that people use when evaluating messages and on the relationship between attitudes and behavior. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Leon Festinger’s important cognitive dissonance theory was developed during this time and became a model for later research (Festinger, 1957).

In the 1970s and 1980s, social psychology became even more cognitive in orientation as social psychologists used advances in cognitive psychology, which were themselves based largely on advances in computer technology, to inform the field (Fiske & Taylor, 2008). The focus of these researchers, including Alice Eagly, Susan Fiske, E. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Tory Higgins, Richard Nisbett, Lee Ross, Shelley Taylor, and many others, was on social cognition—an understanding of how our knowledge about our social worlds develops through experience and the influence of these knowledge structures on memory, information processing, attitudes, and judgment. Furthermore, the extent to which humans’ decision making could be flawed due to both cognitive and motivational processes was documented (Kahneman, Slovic, & Tversky, 1982).

In the 21st century, the field of social psychology has been expanding into still other areas. Examples that we consider in this book include an interest in how social situations influence our health and happiness, the important roles of evolutionary experiences and cultures on our behavior, and the field of social neuroscience—the study of how our social behavior both influences and is influenced by the activities of our brain (Lieberman, 2010). MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Social psychologists continue to seek new ways to measure and understand social behavior, and the field continues to evolve. We cannot predict where social psychology will be directed in the future, but we have no doubt that it will still be alive and vibrant.

Social psychology is the study of the dynamic relationship between individuals and the people around them. Each of us is different, and our individual characteristics, including our personality traits, desires, motivations, and emotions, have an important impact on our social behavior. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 But our behavior is also profoundly influenced by the social situation—the people with whom we interact every day. These people include our friends and family, our classmates, our religious groups, the people we see on TV or read about or interact with online, as well as people we think about, remember, or even imagine.

Social psychologists believe that human behavior is determined by both a person’s characteristics and the social situation. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 They also believe that the social situation is frequently a stronger influence on behavior than are a person’s characteristics.

Social psychology is largely the study of the social situation. Our social situations create social influence—the process through which other people change our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and through which we change theirs. Maybe you can already see how social influence affected Raoul Wallenberg’s choices and how he in turn influenced others around him.

2. Discuss the various areas and researches of social influence. 

Social influence can also be defined as the process by which individuals make real changes to their feelings and behaviours as a result of interaction with others who are perceived to be similar, desirable, or expert. People adjust their beliefs with respect to others to whom they feel similar in accordance with psychological principles such as balance. Individuals are also influenced by the majority: when a large portion of an individual’s referent social group holds a particular attitude, it is likely that the individual will adopt it as well. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Additionally, individuals may change an opinion under the influence of another who is perceived to be an expert in the matter at hand. French and Raven (1959) provided an early formalisation of the concept of social influence in their discussion of the bases of social power. For French and Raven, agents of change included not just individuals and groups, but also norms and roles. They viewed social influence as the outcome of the exertion of social power from one of five bases: reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, expert power, or referent power. A change in opinion or attitude was considered an instance of social influence.

Since 1959, scholars have distinguished true social influence from forced public acceptance and from changes based on reward or coercive power. Social researchers are still concerned with public compliance, reward power, and coercive power, but those concerns are differentiated from social influence studies.

Social influence involves intentional and unintentional efforts to change another person's beliefs, attitudes, or behavior. Unlike persuasion, which is typically intentional and requires some degree of awareness on the part of the target, social influence may be inadvertent or accidental. Social influence often operates via peripheral processing. Hence, the target may be unaware of the influence attempt. Unlike compliance gaining, MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 which is usually goal directed, social influence is often nongoal directed and the outcomes may be inconsistent with, or unrelated to, a communicator's goals. Social influence encompasses such strategies as indebtedness or reciprocity, commitment, social proof, liking and attractiveness, authority, and scarcity.

Social influence encompasses such strategies as indebtedness or reciprocity, commitment, social proof, liking and attractiveness, authority, and scarcity.

Social influences from peers and family have a profound impact on positive youth adjustment. Although susceptibility to social influence is often viewed as a vulnerability in adolescent development, particularly in the peer domain (and arguably so, given the evidence for peer-related increases in risk taking behaviors), we reviewed empirical support that underscores the positive side of susceptibility to social influence. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Peers and families provide an opportunity for social adjustment, with the potential to redirect negative trajectories and increase positive outcomes. With empirical evidence showing that social influence relates to positive adjustment, it is key to capitalize on the social context and use this time as a period of investment, perhaps especially during middle school when adolescents are thought to be most socially sensitive (Knoll, MagisWeinberg, Speekenbrink, & Blakemore, 2015; Van Hoorn, MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Van Dijk, et al., 2016). Indeed, recent prevention programs designed to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., tobacco use, peer victimization) and/or increase positive behaviors (prosocial behaviors) have successfully applied aspects of social learning and social identity theories in the promotion of positive classroom norms and use of socially salient referent peers to change negative attitudes (Paluck & Shepherd, 2012; Van Lier et al., 2011). Despite increasing attention to the positive side of social influences and its application in interventions, further research is needed to fully capture the inherent complexities of the social influence process and its relation to positive youth adjustment. With increased understanding of the social influence processes involved in deviancy training, we could modify and apply them to prosocial training, in which youth are exposed to more positive social influences.

Social influences on creativity have received a huge amount of attention in the scholarly research, especially of late. This is because social processes and structures represent such dramatic influences on creativity. Very likely, no creative potentials would be fulfilled without social support of some kind. Moreover, creative efforts often would go unrecognized without social attributions and recognition. Some creative people work for that recognition. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Many are influenced along the way by competition and other social situations. Industries and organizations attempting to stay competitive, diversify, and innovate look to situational influences in order to insure that the creativity of their employees is supported.

For those reasons the second part of this chapter examines the organization, teams, and the like. Yet “social influence” is a broad concept and covers more than organizational issues. Many influences on development and growth, for example, including those presented by parents and teachers, reflect social processes. In that light this chapter presents one perspective on social processes, with complementary perspectives given in the chapters covering the developmental, cultural, and historical perspectives.

The various social perspectives are quite practical. Indeed, the developmental, educational, and social/organizational research demonstrates very well that creativity is a practical concern and not just an academic topic of study.  This practicality will be particularly obvious in the discussion of organizational theories, for MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22these tie innovation and productivity to different aspects of the creative process. Late in this chapter additional practical implications are explored. Some may operate on the most general level, namely within society at large. The effects are apparent in indicators of aggregate creativity.

The social perspective has spawned various focused theories, including the attributional theory of creativity (Kasof 1995), a theory of the creative class (Florida 2002, 2005Florida, 2002Florida, 2005), and the communitarian theory (Seitz 2003). Each is described after we address the general question: How do social factors influence creativity? The discussion then shifts to questions about organizations and pinpoints how teams, brainstorming, and other organizational arrangements can influence both creativity and innovation. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 At the end of the chapter we step back further, to a macrosocial level and examine society at large. It may be that cities in the United States, and even countries around the world, differ in their creative talents. Why is that, and what determines it? In the conclusion to this chapter we address the question: Can anything be done to direct social influences toward the fulfillment of creative potential.

3. Discuss the factors affecting helping behavior and the theories related to pro social behavior.

Prosocial behaviors refer to voluntary behaviors that can benefit others (Eisenberg and Fabes, 1998), and include helping, sharing, comforting, cooperating, donating, being fair and volunteering (Zahn-Waxler and Smith, 1992; Dunfield et al., 2011). MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 These behaviors are motivated by empathy, an emotional reaction that enables people to understand and share the feelings of others (Spinrad and Eisenberg, 2009) and play an important role in the development of social and academic competence (Eisenberg et al., 1996; Spinrad and Eisenberg, 2009). For example, kindergarteners with higher levels of prosocial behaviors tend to have more mutual friendships and higher levels of peer acceptance, and subsequently have better classroom participation and school achievement (Ladd et al., 1999). MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The explanations for individual differences in prosocial behaviors could be social, evolutionary or biological. Social and situational factors that can influence prosocial behaviors include the interpretation of others' needs, the relationship to others, the reciprocal altruism, the number of bystanders, the normative pressure to help, and the evaluation of the cost to help (Batson, 1998). Evolutionally, biological relatedness and group selection are also possible factors explaining the prosocial behaviors (Eisenberg and Fabes, 1998). People are more likely to help genetically related individuals, which increases the likelihood of passing the same genes carried by the individuals. In addition, prosocial behaviors among group members may promote the survival of the group. Biological factors also play a role in prosocial behaviors. Brain areas involved in emotional systems such as amygdala and frontal cortex and the level of opioids in brain are related to prosocial behaviors (Eisenberg et al., 2006). MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Additionally, as is the case with PA, behavioral genetic studies have shown that individual differences in prosocial behaviors are attributed to genetic, shared environment, and non-shared environmental factors (Scourfield et al., 2004; Knafo and Plomin, 2006).

Prosocial behaviors have been linked to PA. Higher levels of PA lead to more sharing behaviors in children (Lennon and Eisenberg, 1987). Prosocial attitudes and behaviors in older adults predict their PA 3 years later after controlling for demographic characteristics (Kahana et al., 2013). MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The association between prosocial behaviors and PA might be mediated by the sense of self-efficacy. Prosocial behaviors could enable people to have a more positive view of themselves and enhance their self-efficacy, thus fostering PA (Fazio, 2009). PA, in turn, may increase people's sense of self-efficacy by yielding an optimistic view of their own abilities and resources to help people and then act out in a more prosocial manner (Cialdini et al., 1982). Although previous studies have focused on the link between prosocial behaviors and PA, relatively little is known about the genetic and environmental factors that underlie the association. An exception is the finding that the association between one aspect of prosocial behaviors, helping, and PA in early childhood is explained by both shared and non-shared environmental factors (Volbrecht et al., 2007). However, prosocial behaviors encompass a constellation of behaviors beyond helping, thus highlighting the need for research using a more comprehensive measure of prosociability which can provide a fuller understanding of the association between the two domains.

According to Dovidio et al (2006) prosocial behaviour is influenced by biological, psychological, and environmental and social factors.

Biological: Trivers (1971) introduced “reciprocal altruism”, where people are more likely to help others because of the probabilities of receiving their help, thus increasing their survival opportunities. For instance: identical twins (sharing 100% genes) are more likely to help each other than fraternal twins (share 50% of genes) (Roy F. Baumeister & Kathleen D. Vohs, 2007, p.3). According to the need-to-belong theory, reciprocal altruism could be a societal norm in the community, therefore people would engage in this behaviour to feel accepted. SCT would suggest that reciprocal altruism could be internalized in new groups in order to foster prosocial behaviour. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The sociometer theory would claim that reciprocal altruism contributes to the acceptance of the group, therefore member would help more others.

Social learning and cultural influences: from childhood people are taught social norms, such as the norm of reciprocity and the norm of social responsibility (De Cremer & van Lange, 2001). Several parenting skills of providing support, prosocial values, and behaviours of helping others tend to foster prosocial behaviours in children (Krevans& Gibbs, 1996). Limitation: cross-cultural variations in helping. Some evidence are: Robert Hampson (1984) claims that status in the peer group is associated with the level of group acceptance and type of prosocial behaviour. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 In addition, Francesca Gino and Sreedhari Desai (2012) argue that childhood memories produce moral purity, which elicits to greater prosocial behaviour. Furthermore, Authoritative parents’ models are linked with teaching prosocial behaviour to their children (Roy F. Baumeister & Kathleen D. Vohs, 2007, p.3)

According to the need-to-belong theory, parents would teach social norms and skills of prosocial behaviour in order to feel part of the community. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Secondly. SCT suggests that these norms can be internalized to groups and subgroups in order to increase social cohesion, and prosocial behaviour. Finally, sociometer theory would claim that parents teach these social values in order to increase the relational value of their children compared with others who do not help.

Empathy and Altruism: both empathy and altruism could stimulate prosocial behaviours (Batson, 2006). Some evidence is: firstly, some argue that prosocial behaviour is always based on selfish reasons. For example, people help to enhance their mood or to avoid negative feelings. (Eisenberg, 2007). Secondly, Batson et al. (2007) concluded that empathy produces altruistic motivation to help others and is independent of egoistic motivation. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Thirdly, Findlay et al. (2006) claim that more empathic children are link to greater prosocial behaviour. Fourthly, Simpson & Willer (2008) argues that prosocial behaviour happens even when there are not reputational incentives. Finally, Nancy Eisenberg et al. (1989) argue that sympathy partially facilitates prosocial dispositions in early stages and it is consistent overtime.

According to the need-to-belong theory empathy and altruism could be practiced in order to feel part of society. SCT would suggest that altruism and empathy could be internalized in the values of groups, and increase prosocial behaviour. Finally, the sociometer theory would claim that empathy and altruism would be use to increase member’s relational value to others, and to be more accepted in society; therefore people would practice them more if they were more suggested to society.

Prosocial behavior, or intent to benefit others, is a social behavior that "benefit[s] other people or society as a whole", "such as helping, sharing, donating, co-operating, and volunteering". Obeying the rules and conforming to socially accepted behaviors (such as stopping at a "Stop" sign or paying for groceries) are also regarded as prosocial behaviors. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 These actions may be motivated by empathy and by concern about the welfare and rights of others, as well as for egoistic or practical concerns, such as one's social status or reputation, hope for direct or indirect reciprocity, or adherence to one's perceived system of fairness. It may also be motivated by altruism, though the existence of pure altruism is somewhat disputed, and some have argued that this falls into philosophical rather than psychological realm of debate Evidence suggests that pro sociality is central to the well-being of social groups across a range of scales, including schools. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Prosocial behavior in the classroom can have a significant impact on a student's motivation for learning and contributions to the classroom and larger community. In the workplace, prosocial behaviour can have a significant impact on team psychological safety, as well as positive indirect effects on employee's helping behaviors and task performance. Empathy is a strong motive in eliciting prosocial behavior, and has deep evolutionary roots. 

Prosocial behavior fosters positive traits that are beneficial for children and society. It helps many beneficial functions by bettering production of any league and its organizational scale. Evolutionary psychologists use theories such as kin-selection theory and inclusive fitness as an explanation for why prosocial behavioral tendencies are passed down generationally, according to the evolutionary fitness displayed by those who engaged in prosocial acts. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Encouraging prosocial behavior may also require decreasing or eliminating undesirable social behaviors. 

Although the term "prosocial behavior" is often associated with developing desirable traits in children, the literature on the topic has grown since the late 1980s to include adult behaviors as well. The term "prosocial" has grown into a world-wide movement, using evolutionary science to create real-world pro-social changes from working groups to our whole culture. 

Section B

4. Discuss the characteristics of stereotypes. 

Stereotyping occurs when a person ascribes the collective characteristics associated with a particular group to every member of that group, discounting individual characteristics.

Stereotypes are generalizations about the personal attributes or characteristics of a group of people (e.g., Allport, 1954). Societal stereotypes exist about a broad range of social groups and can vary by context or situation. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Many stereotypes have a long history and were created as a result of specific economic, political, or social circumstances. Stereotyping is a cognitive process in that it involves associating a characteristic with a group, but it can also involve, lead to, or serve to justify an affective reaction toward people from other groups. 

Stereotypes are learned, and can be both explicitly and implicitly taught or reinforced to people through many different social influences, including but not limited to friends and family, neighbors, teachers, peer groups, as well as larger societal influences. As one important example, the media have often been studied and discussed in terms of the role that they play in creating, promoting, and sustaining stereotypes of many different groups through the representations that they present, as the media have a large influence on many people. Some groups are generally underrepresented in the media, yet the images that do exist in the media are disproportionately stereotypical (e.g., Mastro and Greenberg, 2000). MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 These media representations can affect people’s endorsement of stereotypes, especially if people do not have frequent, close contact with members of the groups being represented outside of what they see in the media.

In social psychology, a stereotype is a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people. By stereotyping we infer that a person has a whole range of characteristics and abilities that we assume all members of that group have. For example, a “hells angel” biker dresses in leather.

The use of stereotypes is a major way in which we simplify our social world; since they reduce the amount of processing (i.e. thinking) we have to do when we meet a new person.

Positive examples of stereotypes include judges (the phrase “sober as a judge” would suggest this is a stereotype with a very respectable set of characteristics), MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 overweight people (who are often seen as “jolly”) and television newsreaders (usually seen as highly dependable, respectable and impartial).  Negative stereotypes seem far more common, however.

Researchers have found that stereotypes exist of different races, cultures or ethnic groups. Although the terms race, culture and ethnic groups have different meanings, we shall take them to mean roughly the same thing at the moment.

The most famous study of racial stereotyping was published by Katz and Braly in 1933 when they reported the results of a questionnaire completed by students at Princeton University in the USA.

5. Describe the factors of attitude formation. 

Attitude - There are various opinions expressed by psychologists about understanding attitude. World of Psychology will be a little review of what's called attitude? MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 As said by psychologists Thomas WJ (in Ahmadi, 1999), which imposes limits as a level attitude trends are positive and negative, associated with the object of psychology. Object psychology here include: symbols, words, slogans, people, institutions, ideas and so on.

According to Sarnoff (in Sarwono, 2000) identifies the attitude of willingness to respond (disposition to react) positively (Favorably) or negatively (unfavorably) to the object - a particular object. D.Krech and RS Crutchfield (in Sears, 1999) found that the attitude of the organization that is settled from the motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive aspects of the world of the individual.

While La Pierre (in Anwar, 2003) gives the definition of attitude as a pattern of behavior, tendencies or anticipatory readiness, predisposition to adapt in social situations, or simply, the attitude is a response to social stimuli that have been conditioned. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Further Soetarno (1994) gives the definition of attitude is the view or feelings that accompanied the tendency to act on a particular object. The attitude is always directed to something means nothing without an attitude. Attitude is directed to objects, people, peritiwa, views, institutions, norms, and others.

Although there are some differences in terms of attitudes, but based on the opinions of the above it can be concluded that the attitude is a state in which man moves to act or do in social activities with certain feelings in response to a situation or condition of the objects in the surrounding environment. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 In addition it also provides readiness posture to respond to the positive or negative nature of the object or situation. Factors Affecting Attitude Formation.

Factors influencing attitude are beliefs, feelings, and action tendencies of an individual or group of individuals towards objects, ideas, and people.

Quite often persons and objects or ideas become associated in the minds of individuals and as a result, attitudes become multidimensional and complex.

However, the essential aspect, of the attitude is found in the fact that some characteristic feeling or emotion is experienced and, as we would accordingly expect, some definite tendency to action is associated.

Subjectively, then, the important factor is the feeling or emotion.

Every society has the majority of people who prefer to lead a harmonious life. They try to avoid unnecessary friction of conflicts with people.

Naturally, they are inclined to develop positive attitudes towards most of the people and issues.

Our attitudes may facilitate and maintain our relationships with members of positively valued groups. Social roles and social norms can have a strong influence on attitudes.

6. Explain the methods of reducing prejudice and discrimination. 

Having summarised some of the important theoretical contributions to prejudicereduction, I will now present a summary of the main types of interventions with evidence on effectiveness, drawing on case studies and suggesting some principles which may be usefully applied elsewhere. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Again it is vital to note that the case studies are not intended to be directly applicable to prejudice-reduction in Scotland. For instance, some of them talk about successful interventions to improve intergroup relations in post-conflict societies, which may be dealing with tensions that often spills over into actual (violent) conflict, and we may also assume that these are likely to be more 'reactive' than preventative. However, it may be appropriate to apply some of the 'universal principles' emerging from these to future strategies.

A mixture of lab-based interventions and evaluations of prejudice-reduction initiatives 'in the field' make up the growing literature on 'what works', however the majority of studies are controlled and experimental, have taken place in psychology laboratories, and often with psychology students as participants. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Fewer studies take place in 'real-life', in schools or communities for example.

Unsurprisingly, education has long been a key area of interest for scholars in all disciplines who have looked at 'what works' to reduce prejudice. Educational prejudice-reduction initiatives build on contact theory through the premise that activities such as cooperative learning; discussion and peer influence; instruction; and multi-cultural curriculum will help to reduce prejudice in a way that contact alone might not be sufficient to. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Educational initiatives are concerned with promoting positive relations through challenging stereotypes and 'myths' about out-groups. This may involve groups being in direct contact with each other, for example pupils from different faith schools taking part in shared learning, or peer discussion between different groups on topics that might be said to create divisions and tensions (such as certain historical events).

Some educational initiatives may draw on 'extended contact' principles such as empathy and perspective taking, and might take the form of vicarious/imagined contact. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 These techniques may be useful for more 'hidden minorities', and situations where direct contact is either impractical (for instance, when dealing with prejudice against transgender people, who make up a very small proportion of the population) or might prove problematic (such as in post-conflict societies).

This section of the report outlines various case studies of these principles being implemented in prejudice-reduction interventions. Although much of the existing research in this area is lab-based, there is value in also highlighting those interventions that were carried out and evaluated 'in the field'. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The case studies selected were sampled from a large number of interventions, on the basis that they cover different international contexts, different age groups, and deal with different types of prejudice: as such, they are intended to be merely an indication of the types of studies that exist. The final point to make is that 'diversity training', in the sense of short-term initiatives which often take place in corporate workplaces, is dealt with in a separate section, as the principles discussed in this section tend to focus on mid-long term educational strategies, and tend to be aimed at younger people rather than adults.

7. Elaborate upon the methods of conflict resolution. 

Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs) and by engaging in collective negotiation. Dimensions of resolution typically parallel the dimensions of conflict in the way the conflict is processed. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Cognitive resolution is the way disputants understand and view the conflict, with beliefs, perspectives, understandings and attitudes. Emotional resolution is in the way disputants feel about a conflict, the emotional energy. Behavioral resolution is reflective of how the disputants act, their behavior. Ultimately a wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including negotiation, mediation, mediationarbitration, diplomacy, and creative peacebuilding. 

The term conflict resolution may also be used interchangeably with dispute resolution, where arbitration and litigation processes are critically involved. The concept of conflict resolution can be thought to encompass the use of nonviolent resistance measures by conflicted parties in an attempt to promote effective resolution. 

There are many examples of conflict resolution in history, and there has been a debate about the ways to conflict resolution: whether it should be forced or peaceful. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Conflict resolution by peaceful means is generally perceived to be a better option. The conflict resolution curve derived from an analytical model that offers a peaceful solution by motivating conflicting entities. Forced resolution of conflict might invoke another conflict in the future.

Conflict resolution curve (CRC) separates conflict styles into two separate domains: domain of competing entities and domain of accommodating entities. There is a sort of agreement between targets and aggressors on this curve. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Their judgements of badness compared to goodness of each other are analogous on CRC. So, arrival of conflicting entities to some negotiable points on CRC is important before peace building. CRC does not exist (i.e., singular) in reality if the aggression of the aggressor is certain. Under such circumstances it might lead to apocalypse with mutual destruction. 

The curve explains why nonviolent struggles ultimately toppled repressive regimes and sometimes forced leaders to change the nature of governance. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Also, this methodology has been applied to capture conflict styles on the Korean Peninsula and dynamics of negotiation processes. 

Conflicts can be resolved in a variety of ways, including negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and litigation. Negotiation. In conflict resolution, you can and should draw on the same principles of collaborative negotiation that you use in dealmaking.

8. Explain the concept and importance of group dynamics.

Group dynamics deals with the attitudes and behavioral patterns of a group. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 It can be used as a means for problem-solving, teamwork, and to become more innovative and productive as an organization. The concept of group dynamics will also provide you with the strengths, success factors and measures along with other professional tools.

The term ‘group dynamics’ means the study of forces within a group. Since human beings have an innate desire for belonging to a group, group dynamism is bound to occur. In an organization or in a society, we can see groups, small or large, working for the well-being.

The social process by which people interact with one another in small groups can be called group dynamism. A group has certain common objectives & goals. Because of which members are bound together with certain values and culture.

Firstly, a group can influence the way the members think. The members are always influenced by the interactions of other members in the group. A group with a good leader performs better as compared to a group with a weak leader.

The group can give the effect of synergy, that is, if the group consists of positive thinkers then its output is more than double every time.

Group dynamism can furthermore give job satisfaction to the members.

The group can also infuse the team spirit among the members.

Even the attitude, insights & ideas of members depend on group dynamism. For example, negative thinkers convert to positive thinkers with the help of the facilitator.

Also, if the group works as a cohesive group, the cooperation and convergence can result in maximization of productivity

Furthermore, group dynamism can reduce labor unrest. Lastly, it reduces labor turnover due to emotional attachment among the group members.

The word dynamics means ‘force’. Group dynamics means the study of forces within a group. Since human beings have an innate desire for belonging to a group, group dynamism is bound to occur. In an organization or in a society, we can see groups, small or large, working for the well-being.

The social process by which people interact with each other in small groups can be called group dynamism. A group has certain common objectives and goals and members are bound together with certain values and culture.

In organizational development, group dynamics refers to the understanding of behaviour of people in groups that are trying to solve a problem or making a decision. A good manager can act as a facilitator and assist the group in accompanying its objectives and arrive at correct decisions.

Because people gather in groups for reasons other than task accomplishment, group process occurs in other types of groups such as personal growth groups (e.g., encounter groups, study groups, prayer groups). In such cases, an individual with expertise in group process can be helpful in the role of facilitator.

Section C

9.    Characteristics of prejudice. 

Common features of prejudice include negative feelings, stereotyped beliefs, and a tendency to discriminate against members of a group. In society, we often see prejudices toward a group based on race, sex, religion, culture, and more. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 While specific definitions of prejudice given by social scientists often differ, most agree that it involves prejudgments that are usually negative about members of a group.

10.Features of a group. 

1.  It consists of two or more persons who interact with each other.

2.  Group members have reciprocal influence on each other. Each member influences and is influenced by others in the group.

3.  In groups, people develop mutual perceptions and emotional ties with each other. They perceive themselves as a group and recognise each other as members of the group.

4.  Every group has a formal leader elected by group members and an informal leader “who engages in leadership activities but whose right to do so has not been formally recognised by the organisation or group.”

5.  Each individual in group performs a specific role which influences and enhances future expectations of group members from each other.

11.  Interpersonal attractions. 

Within the study of social psychology, interpersonal attraction is related to how much one likes, dislikes, or hates someone. It can be viewed as a force acting between two people that tends to draw them together and to resist their separation. IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 When measuring interpersonal attraction, one must refer to the qualities of the attracted and those of the attractor to achieve predictive accuracy. It is suggested that to determine attraction, both the personalities and the situation must be taken into account.

12.  Learned helplessness. 

Learned helplessness is behavior exhibited by a subject after enduring repeated aversive stimuli beyond their control. IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 It was initially thought to be caused from the subject's acceptance of their powerlessness: discontinuing attempts to escape or avoid the aversive stimulus, even when such alternatives are unambiguously presented. Upon exhibiting such behavior, the subject was said to have acquired learned helplessness.

13.  Environmental stressors. 

Stressors that are found in our surroundings are called environmental stressors. Everyday life is full of environmental stressors that cause minor irritations. If you use an alarm clock to wake up, the loud noise from your alarm is an environmental stressor. IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Extreme temperatures are also environmental stressors and can lead to discomfort. Other common environmental stressors include:

        Noise

        Crowding

        Air quality

        Colors

        Tornadoes and other natural disasters

        War and other manmade disasters

        Light

        Insects

14.  Errors in attribution. 

The fundamental attribution error refers to an individual's tendency to attribute another's actions to their character or personality, while attributing their behavior to external situational factors outside of their control. IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 In other words, you tend to cut yourself a break while holding others 100 percent accountable for their actions.

For instance, if you've ever chastised a "lazy employee" for being late to a meeting and then proceeded to make an excuse for being late yourself that same day, you've made the fundamental attribution error. 

15.  Experimental method. 

There are a few different types of experiments that researchers might choose to use. The type of experiment chosen might depend on a variety of factors including the participants, the hypothesis and the resources available to the researchers.

The experimental method involves the manipulation of variables to establish cause and effect relationships. IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The key features are controlled methods and the random allocation of participants into controlled and experimental groups.

16.  Informed consent. 

Informed consent is the process in which a health care provider educates a patient about the risks, benefits, and alternatives of a given procedure or intervention. The patient must be competent to make a voluntary decision about whether to undergo the procedure or intervention.  Informed consent is both an ethical and legal obligation of medical practitioners in the US and originates from the patient's right to direct what happens to their body. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Implicit in providing informed consent is an assessment of the patient's understanding, rendering an actual recommendation, and documentation of the process.

17.  Active crowd. 

The active crowd identifies an object or group of objects outside itself and proceeds to act directly upon it or them. It will brook no delay or interference, no discussion of the desirability of acting, and no dissent from its course of action.…

People gathering in a musical function is a passive crowd. ... On the other hand, a mob or an active crowd can turn to an audience or passive crowd when someone, may be the leader stands up to pacify the members or explains the purpose and aim for which the crowd has gathered.

18.  Obedience.

Obedience is a form of social influence that involves performing an action under the orders of an authority figure. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 It differs from compliance (which involves changing your behavior at the request of another person) and conformity (which involves altering your behavior in order to go along with the rest of the group).

MPC 004 ADVANCED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Solved Assignment 2021-22, MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22, IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MAPC Solved Assignment 2021-22


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IGNOU Assignment Status 2021-22

MPC 004 ADVANCED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Solved Assignment 2021-22: Those students who had successfully submitted their Assignments to their allocated study centres can now check their Assignment Status. Alongside assignment status, they will also checkout their assignment marks & result. All this is often available in a web mode. After submitting the assignment, you'll check you IGNOU Assignment Status only after 3-4 weeks. it'd take 40 days to declare.

Those students who had successfully submitted their Assignments to their allocated study centres can now check their Assignment Status. Along with assignment status, they can also checkout their assignment marks & result. MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 All this is available in an online mode. After submitting the assignment, you can check you IGNOU Assignment Status only after 3-4 weeks. It might take 40 days to declare.

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